[FAST Process]


FAST is a process for structuring critical reflection.

You can learn more about the FAST process by reading Jeff’s book DEAL! Discovery, Engagement, and Leverage for Professionals, available in ebook or paperback from Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/DEAL-Discovery-Engagement-Leverage-Professionals/dp/0996657711 

Critical reflection occurs when people think, talk, read, and write about issues important to them.

Jeff Belkora developed FAST in the context of helping people think, talk, read and write about medical decisions.

FAST stands for

Formulate issues
Analyze issues
Synthesize insights
Translate insights into action, or reformulations of issues


FAST critical reflection involves Formulating and Analyzing issues, Synthesizing insights, and Translating the insights into action.

FAST can be self-administered or facilitated by a person or software program.

The process should occur in the context of thinking, talking, reading, and writing about a decision.

Each step produces a corresponding document and can be further structured using other methods. See figure below. The SLCT (“select”) process can be used to formulate issues early in critical reflection; while the SCOPED process can be used for analysis; and the S5 model can be used for synthesizing insights.

Jeff Belkora conceived of FAST, SLCT, SCOPED and S5 based on years of work helping patients reflect critically with doctors and others about treatment decisions.


Jeff Belkora trains people in the use of the FAST process, and advises organizations on how to implement it with appropriate programs, procedures, and policies.

Apprentices – complete classroom or online training

Facilitators – deliver FAST process to clients under supervision

Trainers – trained to conduct classroom or online training or supervise facilitators


“This workshop got me started on writing things down rather than doing everything in my head.”

“I realized that I can be effective and gain support in my health decisions and for my other members of family in this form.”

“ I learned more in the first half hour of this class than I learned in an entire day in another course!”

“The workshop is very well organized. Took me out of my space and made me participate with others.”

“I would definitely recommend it. Very excellent use of time and energy.”

“Taking time to use a model like SCOPED brings out details and clarity in thinking before deciding.”

“I will put this SCOPED checklist on the wall in the kitchen – so I get it into my head”

“I am very pleased to have the SCOPED checklist for future needs”

“I learned a skill on how to break down elements in decision making to come to an informed decision right for me.”

“I truly appreciate the efficient, yet effective, means of getting to the heart of the decision quandaries people are facing.”